Earthworks and stone castles dating from c1100 to 1550 are located across the rural landscape, at strategic points in river valleys, glens and straths. Their perimeters may be delimited by huge ditches, earthworks and/or massive stone walls, within which were timber and/or stone buildings. Some are quite small (less than a hectare) and are therefore not included as HLA data. The majority of medieval castles are now ruinous but some have become visitor attractions.
Caerlaverock Castle in Dumfriesshire was built in the late 13th century to replace an earlier site nearer the sea, the ruins of which lie in the woodland beyond. Current OS maps note most castle sites, while aerial photography may reveal the full extent of ancillary buildings outside the castle walls or earthworks.